Determining Learning TargetsThis is a featured page

Now that essential understandings and skills have been determined, we can now begin to turn our attention toward identifying specific learning targets. Determining the learning targets prior to constructing the assessments are beneficial to the teachers, students and parents. To be beneficial, however, these statements must be clear and usable. To determine what kind of learning target is needed, a categorization framework that identifies five kinds of learning targets has been provided (Stiggins, et. al, 2006):

Knowledge Reasoning Skill Product Disposition
Represents the factual underpinnings in each content area. Represents the mental processes such as predicts, infers, classifies, hypothesizes, compares, concludes, summarizes, analyzes, evaluates, and generalizes. Represents performances that must be demonstrated and observed – heard or seen. Represents products created by students. Represents important affective goals for students as byproducts of their educational experiences - not assessed for the purpose of grading.
Procedural knowledge – how to do something. The skillful use, or application, of the knowledge learned. Oral fluency in reading, giving an oral presentation, demonstrating movement skills in dance. Demonstrating the ability to create something that represents what knowledge was acquired. Valued targets for students that reflect attitudes and feeling states.
Is the target asking the student to know something outright or via reference? What does the use of knowledge in the content area look like in life beyond the school? What knowledge and reasoning targets underlie the desired skills? What will students learn (target) by engaging in the activity? What are the attitudes or feelings about a students learning experience are important?
Example: Explains the important characteristics of U.S. citizenship. Example: Distinguishes between historical fact and opinion; compares and contrasts points of view from an historical event. Example: Participates in civic discussions with the aim of solving current problems. Example: Creates a product that uses social studies content to support a thesis. Example: Intends to vote in every election.

We had a brief discussion regarding the deconstruction of learning objectives using Wiggins & McTighe (1998), and here is another method that may assist us:

United States History Standard 10. Understands how the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed American lives and led to regional tensions

Topics 1. Growth of slavery after 1800; 2. Causes and consequences of slavery

Level IV [Grade 9-12]

Benchmark 3. Understands how slavery influenced economic and social elements of Southern society (e.g., how slavery hindered the emergence of capitalist institutions and values, the influence of slavery on the development of the middle class, the influence of slave revolts on the lives of slaves and freed slaves)

A. influence of slavery on the South Knowledge/skill statements
1. Understands how slavery influenced economic elements of southern society
2. Understands how slavery influenced social elements of southern society
3. Understands how slavery hindered the emergence of capitalist institutions
4. Understands how slavery hindered the emergence of capitalist values
5. Understands the influence of slavery on the development of the middle class
6. Understands the influence of slave revolts on the lives of slaves
7. Understands the influence of slave revolts on the lives of freed slaves


Student-Friendly Learning Target Statements
Knowledge/ Understanding I can explain how slavery influenced the economic elements of southern society. I can describe how slavery influenced social elements of southern society. I can describe how slavery prevented capitalist institutions.
Reasoning I can compare the economic elements of slavery in southern society to the capitalist elements in northern society. I can figure out what impact a revolt would have on the life of a slave and/or freed slave.
Skills I can demonstrate my understanding of the increased tension between the economic and social societies of the north and south.
Products I can produce a podcast that shows and discusses the impact of slavery on the economic and social elements of the societies of the north and south.




SmithRHS
SmithRHS
Latest page update: made by SmithRHS , Mar 19 2009, 2:57 PM EDT (about this update About This Update SmithRHS Edited by SmithRHS


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Brent_Anderson I'm impressed by the work that has been done. 4 May 13 2009, 6:13 AM EDT by Brent_Anderson
Thread started: May 1 2009, 6:50 AM EDT  Watch
I like the student-friendly learning targets. You all are doing good work.
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